Session 1 :Bacterial Vaccines
Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Antibodies are built against that particular bacteria, and prevents bacterial infection later. An example of a bacterial vaccine is the Tuberculosis vaccine. Live bacterial vaccine vectors have been extensively used to deliver and express heterologous vaccine antigens to protect against cancer and various infectious agents including AIDS are easily mass produced and can be orally or intranasally applied and induce strong immune responses. However relatively few studies have tested whether heterologous expression of parasitic antigens with bacterial vaccine vector strains can lead to protective immunity. Invasive bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia, Shigella and Mycobacterium bovis BCG have been used as vaccine vectors, capable of mounting potent humoral and cellular immune responses.
Session 2 :Viral Vaccines
Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated alive but not capable of causing disease viruses. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have lost their ability to replicate and in order for it to bring about a response it contains more antigen than live vaccines. Attenuated or live vaccines contain the live form of the virus. These viruses are not pathogenic but are able to induce an immune response. There are about 20 safe and effective viral vaccines available for use throughout the world. Viral vaccines are underutilized in many parts of the world mainly due to the absence of health systems for well-child care. For instance, it is estimated that worldwide more than 100,000 children die each year from measles a totally preventable disease with a safe and inexpensive vaccine.
Session 3 :Parasite Vaccines
Parasitic diseases are one of the most common problems that confront the health and productivity of animals worldwide. Parasites are responsible for organ condemnation, zoonoses and huge economic losses in animal production. Various control methods have been implemented to minimize or curb losses caused by parasitic diseases. Significant effort and progress has occurred over the last several years in the development of vaccines against three main tropical parasitic diseases malaria, leishmaniases and schistosomiasis. However, an effective vaccine is not yet available. The difficulties in developing a vaccine against parasitic disease are complicated not only by the necessity to identify and produce appropriate, protective antigens but also a lack of complete understanding of the types of immune responses needed for protection. Despite these hurdles several candidate vaccines are under development for each disease. At least one promising vaccine candidate exists that is in late stage clinical testing.
Session 4 :Cancer Vaccines
A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Some researchers claim that cancerous cells routinely arise and are destroyed by the immune system; and that tumors form when the immune system fails to destroy them. Some types of cancer, such as cervical cancer and some liver cancers are caused by viruses oncoviruses. Traditional vaccines against those viruses, such as HPV vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine, prevent those types of cancer. These vaccines are not further discussed in this article. Other cancers are to some extent caused by bacterial infections such as stomach cancer and Helicobacter pylori.
Session 5 :Pediatric Vaccination
Immunization is one of the most frequent, complex, and costly activities in the pediatric office. The routine childhood immunization schedule published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has burgeoned from vaccines protecting against nine diseases. Although electronic health record decision support holds promise for streamlining vaccine administration, currently pediatricians must rely on intimate knowledge of immunizations and ready access to resources that address the nuances of the schedule and other special considerations such as contraindications and precautions. Pediatric vaccination deals with routine childhood vaccine schedule, contraindications and precautions to immunization and common special considerations in immunization. By the mid 1980s, there were seven vaccines routinely given to children include DTP; measles, mumps, rubella (MMR); and polio and smallpox was discontinued in the early 1970s. DTP and MMR were given in two shots, and polio vaccine was given by mouth.
Session 6 :Vaccine Safety and Regulation
At the end of the 19th century, several vaccines for humans had been developed. They were smallpox, rabies, plague, cholera, and typhoid vaccines. However, no regulation of vaccine production existed. The current system for developing, testing, and regulating vaccines developed during the 20th century as the groups involved standardized their procedures and regulations. On July 1, 1902, the U.S. Congress passed An act to regulate the sale of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products," later referred to as the Biologics Control Act even though biologics appears nowhere in the law. This was the first modern federal legislation to control the quality of drugs. This act emerged in part as a response to 1901 contamination events in St. Louis and Camden involving smallpox vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin. The United States Public Service Act of 1944 mandated that the federal government to issue licenses for biological products including vaccines. After a poliovirus vaccine accident in 1954 known as the Cutter incident, the Division of Biologics Standards was formed to oversee vaccine safety and regulation. Later, the Division of Biologics Standards was renamed the Bureau of Biologics, and it became part of the Food and Drug Administration. It is now know as the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.
Session 7 :Immune System and Vaccination
Time over time it is being argued that vaccinations can lead to a general susceptibility to infections. After the measles vaccination, there is a significant reduction in the lymphocytes count and the function. These types of white blood cells are responsible among other things for example is the defense of viral infections. The MMR vaccine temporarily suppresses the function of neutrophil leukocytes for the defense of bacterial infections such as competent white blood cells. It is biologically plausible that the injection of an inactivated virus, a bacterium or a live weakened virus in a sensitive recipient can trigger an autoimmune response by means of deregulation of the immune response, addressed against the myelin proteins and unspecified activation of T cells, or by an autoimmune reaction due to sequential similarity of the vaccine proteins with myelin proteins.
Session 8 :Vaccine Delivery Strategies and Safety
The United States has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in its history. Safety monitoring begins with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The agency ensures the safety, effectiveness, and availability of vaccines for the United States. Before a vaccine is approved by the FDA for use by the public, results of studies on safety and effectiveness of the vaccine are evaluated by highly trained FDA scientists and doctors. FDA also inspects the sites where vaccines are made to make sure they follow strict manufacturing guidelines. Although most common side effects of a vaccine are identified in studies before the vaccine is licensed, rare adverse events may not be detected in these studies. Therefore, the U.S. vaccine safety system continuously monitors for possible side effects after a vaccine is licensed.
Session 9 :Vectors for Vaccine Delivery
Viral vectors have different capabilities as gene delivery vehicles for vaccines and immunotherapeutics. It deals with selected viral vector systems and plasmid DNA and provides an overview of their specific characteristics, strengths, and limitations. The features, modes of viral entry and replication, expression of heterologous proteins, issues related to both preexisting and heterologous immunity, and vaccine strategies are discussed for the different vectors. Traditional approach of inactivated or live-attenuated vaccine immunization has resulted in impressive success in the reduction and control of infectious disease outbreaks. However, many pathogens remain less amenable to deal with the traditional vaccine strategies, and more appropriate vaccine strategy is in need.
Session 10 :Reproductive Immunology
Reproductive immunology refers to a field of medicine that studies interactions or the absence of them between the immune system and components related to the reproductive system such as maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus, or immunological interactions across the blood-testis barrier. The concept has been used by fertility clinics to explain the fertility problems, recurrent miscarriages and pregnancy complications observed when this state of immunological tolerance is not successfully achieved. Immunological therapy is the new up and coming method for treating many cases of previously unexplained infertility or recurrent miscarriage. The fact that the embryo's tissue is half foreign and unlike mismatched organ transplant, suggests that the immunological system of the mother plays an important role in pregnancy. The placenta also plays an important part in protecting the embryo for the immune attack from the mother's system.
Session 11 :Cardiac Immunopathology
Immunopathologic studies were performed on cardiac tissue obtained at autopsy in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The immunopathologic findings were correlated with histopathologic and clinical evidence of cardiac injury, and with clinical and serologic features of SLE. Immune reactants were demonstrated by direct immunofluorescence in nine patients in a granular deposition pattern suggesting immune complex aggregates. Histologic and gross anatomic findings of inflammation were generally more focal than was the distribution of immune reactants. Most of the immune deposits were present in the walls of the blood vessels of myocardium or pericardium. In one patient with Libman-Sacks endocarditis, immunoglobulin and complement components were present in the valve stroma and the vegetations. The immune deposits around epicardial nerve fibers in two patients with severe neurologic manifestations contained immunoglobulin E(IgE).
Session 12 :Neurological Immunopathology
Immunopathology often abbreviated to IP is what patients experience when they fight an infection. Immunopathology refers to an increase in one's present symptoms of inflammation, or a return of previous inflammatory symptoms. This is caused by cytokines and endotoxins being released from dying bacteria. Occasionally, immunopathology will consist of a new symptom or abnormal lab value due to the occurrence of subclinical inflammation that has been revealed by the Marshall Protocol (MP). Immunopathology is a necessary part of recovery for most patients. The amount of immunopathology a patient experiences on the Marshall Protocol (MP) is correlated with disease severity. Patients who are less sick will have comparatively less strong immunopathology.
Session 13 :Immunology Research and Advances
Immunology Research and Advances deal with pathogenic diseases such as cancer and AIDS presenting tough challenges to immunologists struggling to relate their fundamental research to the causes and cures of those and devastating medical conditions. But the improved understanding gained in research laboratories points the way to progress. For some years now we've recognized the role of the cellular immune response in controlling viral infection and how that kind of knowledge can help us to devise new vaccine approaches for HIV and other diseases of the immune system., Based upon that knowledge, immunologists have focused on efforts of how to elicit the cellular immune responses and how to measure those responses.
Session 14 :Respiratory Immunopathology
Respiratory immunity is accomplished using multiple mechanisms including structure anatomy of the respiratory tract, mucosal defense in the form of the mucociliary apparatus, innate immunity using cells and molecules and acquired immunity. There are species differences of the respiratory immune system that influence the response to environmental challenges and pharmaceutical, industrial and agricultural compounds assessed in nonclinical safety testing and hazard identification. These differences influence the interpretation of respiratory system changes after exposure to these challenges and compounds in nonclinical safety assessment and hazard identification and their relevance to humans. The adaptive immune response plays in mediating the delicate balance between the successful elimination of the virus from the host and the induction of immunopathology. Efficacious immunization against RSV remains a high priority within the field and we will highlight recent advances made in vaccine design.
Session 15 :Oral Immunotherapy
Oral Immunotherapy (OIT) involves the regular administration of small amounts of allergen food by mouth. First there is rapidly induced desensitization like the ability to tolerate an allergen while on immunotherapy, and then, in time, induce tolerance to the allergen such as the long-term ability to tolerate an allergen after immunotherapy is discontinued. Patients undergoing OIT generally ingest a mixture of protein powder in water or some other vehicle like, apple sauce. Treatments are typically started in a controlled setting such as office, hospital clinic where gradually increasing doses of allergen are given up to a targeted dose. The studies encompass peanut allergies, milk, egg, and others. In general most all patients that make it maintenance are desensitized. Some protocols only went to a level to protect from incidental exposure of one peanut more are now moving the patients to a level where they do not have to avoid the food any longer.
Session 16 :Molecular Immunology
Molecular immunology deals with immune responses at cellular and molecular level. It has been evolved for better understanding of the sub-cellular immune responses for prevention and treatment of immune related disorders and immune deficient diseases. Emerging practices and the experiences in this field needs a critical and thorough discussion to spread the knowledge so that the researchers, immunologists and pharmacist adopt them to pass on the benefits to the needy. It focuses on the invitro and invivo immunological responses of the host. It also focuses on the areas such as immunological disorders, invitro and invivo immunological host responses, humoral responses, immunotherapies for treatment of cancer, treatment of autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s disease, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment of Immune deficiencies like hypersensitivities, chronic granulomatous disease, and diagnostic immunology research aspects, allografts, etc.
Session 17 :Clinical and Cellular Immunology
Immunology is a branch of biomedical science concerned with the response of the organism to antigenic, biological, serological, and physical chemical effects of immune phenomena. While cellular immunology studies the cells of the lymphoid organs, the clinical practice of immunology encompassing clinical and laboratory activity, essential for diagnosis of diseases and healthcare management is called clinical immunology. Hence clinical and cellular immunology is a multidisciplinary approach to find solutions to the health disorders of the immune system. Immunology is a branch of biomedical science which deals with an organism's response towards an annexing environmental factor. Cellular immunology is the study of the cells and molecules of an organism's immune system. Insights in clinical and cellular immunology engulfs publishing broad range of investigations, studies and researches concerned with the immunological happenings of cells in experimental or clinical situations.
Session 18 :Auto Immune Diseases
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go. The cause is generally unknown. Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus run in families, and certain cases may be triggered by infections or other environmental factors. Some common diseases are considered autoimmune include celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type1, Graves' disease, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The diagnosis can be difficult to determine.
Session 19 :Cancer & Tumor Immunology
Cancer & Tumor Immunology deal with the study of the knowledge of the basic mechanisms of the immune system as it relates to cancer has been increasing rapidly. These developments have accelerated the translation of these advancements into medical breakthroughs for many cancer patients. The immune system is designed to discriminate between self and non-self, and through genetic recombination there is virtually no limit to the number of antigens it can recognize. Thus mutational events, translocations and other genetic abnormalities within cancer cells may be distinguished as altered-self and these differences may play an important role in preventing the development or progression of cancer. Tumors may utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune system as well. Cancer biologists are aiming to both better understand the relationship between tumors and the normal immune system and to look for ways to alter the playing field for cancer immunotherapy.
Session 20 :Microbial Immunology
The number of mechanisms that have evolved in microbes to subvert the immune response seems limitless. Tubercle bacilli have found a novel way to coat themselves with the C3 complement protein and invade macrophages by interactions with complement receptors. The Research Group Microbial Immunology investigates the interactions between Candida and the host, aiming at a better understanding of the interactions that lead to pathophysiological alterations. We furthermore strive to understand which process in pathogenesis lead to the development of clinical symptoms and lethal disease. To address these questions, the study focuses on microbiological and immunological methods as well as molecular biology in combination with various infection models including the better understanding of the processes during infection.
Session 21 :Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Recent discoveries that led to increased understanding of viral molecular biology and genetics has rendered the used of viruses as vaccine platforms and as potential anti-cancer agents. Due to their ability to effectively induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, viral vectors are deemed as an attractive alternative to the traditional platforms to deliver vaccine antigens as well as to specifically target and kill tumor cells. With potential targets ranging from cancers to a vast number of infectious diseases, the benefits resulting from successful application of viral vectors to prevent and treat human diseases can be immense.
Session 22 :Immunodermatology
Immununodermatology is the study and treatment of the Immune-Mediated Skin Diseases such as psoriasis. Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE), Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) and Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) are some type of autoimmune diseases, in which our body immune system mistakenly acts against our own healthy cells or tissue or parts of the body. Immunodermatology studies skin as an organ of immunity in health and disease. New therapies in development for the immunomodulation of common immunological skin diseases include biologicals aimed at neutralizing TNF-alfa and chemokine receptor inhibitors. Several areas have special attention, such as photo-immunology effects of UV light on skin defense, inflammatory diseases such as hidradenitis suppurativa, allergic contact dermatitis and atopic eczema, presumably autoimmune skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, and finally the immunology of microbial skin diseases such as retrovirus infections and leprosy.
Session 23 :Immunological Techniques
Immunological techniques are the wide varieties of methods and specialized experimental protocols devised by immunologists for inducing, measuring, and characterizing immune responses. They allow the immunologists to alter the immune system through cellular, molecular and genetic manipulation. These techniques are not restricted to the field of immunology, but are widely applied by basic scientists in many other biological disciplines and by clinicians in human and veterinary medicine. Most immunological techniques available are focused on the study of the adaptive immune system. During typical experiment called immunization, immunologists inject a test antigen to an animal or human subject and monitor for the appearance of immune responses in the form of specific antibodies and effector T cells.
Session 24 :Transplantation Immunology
Transplantation is the process of moving cells, tissues or organs from one site to another for the purpose of replacing or repairing damaged or diseased organs and tissues. It saves thousands of lives each year. The immune system poses a significant barrier to successful organ transplantation when tissues/organs are transferred from one individual to another. Rejection is caused by the immune system identifying the transplant as foreign, triggering a response that will ultimately destroy the transplanted organ or tissue. Long term survival of the transplant can be maintained by manipulating the immune system to reduce the risk of rejection. Donor and recipient are carefully matched prior to transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection. They are matched based on their blood group, tissue typing, and how the recipient’s blood serum reacts to donor cells.
Session 25 :Immunohaematology
Immunohematology more commonly known as blood banking is a branch of hematology which studies antigen-antibody reactions and analogous phenomena as they relate to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of blood disorders. Immunohematology is the study of RBC antigens and antibodies associated with blood transfusions. There are more than 230 types of antigens present on the surface of RBCs that based on their chemical structure can be grouped into two major categories carbohydrates and polypeptides. The RBC antigen formation is encoded by specific genes inherited from parents and categorized in blood group systems if genes are known and found on closely located loci and in blood group collections if the genes responsible for their formation have not yet been discovered.
Session 26 :Allergy and Immunological Disorders
Immunological disorders are diseases or conditions caused by a dysfunction of the immune system including allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, autoinflammatory syndromes and immunological deficiency syndromes. Immunodeficiency disorders are either congenital or acquired. A congenital, or primary, disorder is one you were born with. Acquired, or secondary, disorders you get later in life. Acquired disorders are more common than congenital disorders. They prevent your body from fighting infections and diseases. This type of disorder makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacterial infections.More than 80 diseases occur as a result of the immune system attacking the body’s own organs, tissues, and cells. Some of the more common autoimmune diseases include type1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease.